Application of a new methodology for determining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric aerosols using different filter configurations, PUF and XAD-Denuder

Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Fadic, Ximena; Vidal, Víctor; Díaz-Robles, Luis

Palavras-chave: PAHs, XAD-Denuder, Air Toxics, Particulate Matter, Temuco.

Resumo: Recognizing that the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are semi volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), are distributed between the gas phases (GP) and the atmospheric particulate matter (PM), and have a recognized toxicity, it is increasingly important that their analysis was as reliable as possible. For this purpose, the combination of different kinds of membrane filters has been used frequently, as well as polyurethane foam filters (PUF), to sample the gaseous phase. However, this technique is unreliable for determining the distribution between the phases, due mainly to different types of sampling artifacts. Considering this issue, a new methodology for determining the PAHs phase distribution is proposed. This technique involves the utilization of the combination of parallel cartridges, one equipped with membrane filter and PUF (F+PUF) and other with F+PUF+  XAD Denuder (XAD-D). This methodology was proved in a PAHs monitoring campaign in the urban air of Temuco, Chile, in winter season and the obtained results indicate using the combination of cartridge (F+PUF) and (F+PUF+ XAD), we are reducing the effect of sampling artifacts on the determination of the atmospheric concentration of PAHs.

Referências Bibliográficas

[1] Cereceda-Balic. F., Fadic. X., Llanos. A., Domínguez. A., Guevera. J., Vidal. V., Diaz-Robles. L, Schiappacasse. L., Etcharren. P., Obtaining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration ratios and molecular markers for residential wood combustion: Temuco, a case study. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 2012. 62(1):44–51.
[2] Delgado-Saborit, J. M., Stark, C., and Harrison, R. M., Use of a Versatile High Efficiency Multiparallel Denuder for the Sampling of PAHs in Ambient Air: Gas and Particle Phase Concentrations, Particle Size Distribution and Artifact Formation. Environmental Science and Technology, 2014, 48: 499−507.
[3] Mader, B.T. and J.F. Pankow, Gas/Solid Partitioning of Semivolatile Organic Compounds (SOCs) to Air Filters. 3. An Analysis of Gas Adsorption Artifacts in Measurements of Atmospheric SOCs and Organic Carbon (OC) When Using Teflon Membrane Filters and Quartz Fiber Filters. Environmental Science & Technology, 2001. 35(17): p. 3422-3432.
[4] Cereceda-Balic, F., E. Kleist, H. Prast, H. Schlimper, H. Engel, and K. Günther, Description and evaluation of a sampling system for long-time monitoring of PAHs wet deposition. Chemosphere, 2002. 49(3): p. 331-340.
[5] EPA Compendium Method TO-13A, Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Ambient Air Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS), 1999, EPA/625/R-96/010b.
[6] Paolini,V., Guerriero E., Bacaloni, A., Rotatori, M., Benedetti, P., Mosca, S., 2016, Simultaneous Sampling of Vapor and Particle-Phase Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Functionalized Glass Fiber Filters. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 16: 175–183.
[7] Melymuk, L., Bohlin, P., Sanka, O., Pozo, K., Klaanova, J., 2014. Current challenges in air sampling of semivolatile organic contaminants: sampling artifacts and their influence on data comparability. Environmental Science and Technology. 48: 14077-14091.
[8] Diaz-Robles, L.A., J.C. Ortega, J.S. Fu, G.D. Reed, J.C. Chow, J.G. Watson, and J.A. Moncada-Herrera, A hybrid ARIMA and artificial neural networks model to forecast particulate matter in urban areas: The case of Temuco, Chile. Atmospheric Environment, 2008. 42(35): p. 8331-8340.
[9] Sanhueza, P., C. Vargas, and P. Mellado, Impact of air pollution by fine particulate matter (PM10) on daily mortality in Temuco, Chile. Revista Medica De Chile, 2005. 134(6): p. 754-761.
[10] Lewtas, J., Y. Pang, D. Booth, S. Reimer, D.J. Eatough, and L.A. Gundel, Comparison of Sampling Methods for Semi-Volatile Organic Carbon Associated with PM2.5. Aerosol Science and Technology, 2001. 34(1): p. 9-22.
[11] Sanderson, E.G. and J.P. Farant, Atmospheric Size Distribution of PAHs: Evidence of a High-Volume Sampling Artifact. Environmental Science & Technology, 2005. 39(19): p. 7631-7637.