Flow modulators in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

Bjerk, Thiago Rodrigues; Machado, Maria Elisabete; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Tranchida, Peter Q.; Mondello, Luigi; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

Palavras-chave: Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography, flow modulation, mass spectrometric detector.

Resumo: This review paper presents the fundamental principles related to the operational principles of flow modulators associated with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), as well as the main designs of flow modulators that have marked their technological evolution. Flow modulators present a great potential for the development of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography, due to their low operational cost, which may turn GC×GC into a more accessible technique. In addition, it is possible to minimize the lack of sensitivity of a chromatographic system hyphenated to a mass spectrometric detector, with the use of low flow modulators (< 8 mL min–1).

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